In 2000, there were more than 4.9 million pupils (more than 43% were girls), of whom there were more than 140 thousand teachers (half with the qualifications of a teacher). There are 5 higher education institutions. The largest (about 6 thousand teachers, more than 140 thousand students, of which more than 60 thousand study in two-year courses) and the oldest (1959) is the University. Tribhuvana. 14% of Nepal students study science and science.
The Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (established in 1982) is the main academic center for research in the exact and natural sciences. The Royal Academy of Nepal (founded in 1957) oversees culture, art, linguistics, history, and literature. The most important research centers are the universities of Nepal.
The art of Nepal was mainly associated with religious themes. The most ancient stupas of Bodhnath and Swayambhunath (near Kathmandu), built in the 3rd century, have survived. BC. (later rebuilt). Their most characteristic detail is the “Buddha’s eyes” looking at all four cardinal directions (the “third eye” is located at the level of the eyebrows). Pagodas have become widespread (some experts believe that pagodas originated in Nepal). Some of the temples end with “shikhara”. In the 15-18 centuries. in Nepal, temples were erected, in which the features of Indian and Chinese art were bizarrely combined. The complex of Hindu temples Pashupatinath in Kathmandu is famous (construction began in the 13th century). Only in the Kathmandu Valley (included by UNESCO in the list of places of world cultural significance), more than 2,500 large temples and monuments have been preserved. Of the secular buildings, the most interesting are the “Palace of 55 Windows” (Bhaktapur, late 17th century) and the Singha Darbar Palace in Kathmandu (early 20th century). Nepalese monuments, especially of the period of the 16th and 18th centuries, are distinguished by unusually skillful woodcarving.
There are many examples of ancient sculpture (from the 1st century) that are close to Indian art. Initially, they were usually made of stone. After the 9th century. more and more bronze figures appear, usually depicting gods and heroes. Many of the works are done in the style of the Tantric school. Most of the figurines are covered with a delicate reddish patina. Medieval art flourished in the 15th and 18th centuries, when bronze sculpture, which almost completely replaced stone, became even more perfect. There are also excellent examples of stone sculpture of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The earliest surviving works of painting date from the 10th to 11th centuries. (miniatures of manuscripts). In medieval painting, the influence of the Indian (Rajput and Mongolian) and Tibetan schools (thangka) is noticeable. It also flourishes towards the end of the Malla dynasty. For modern painting, as a rule, imitations of European and Indian schools are characteristic.
Up to 15 century. literature (religious texts) was written in Sanskrit. In the Kathmandu Valley during the reign of the Malla dynasty, secular literature began to develop, primarily poetry and drama. After the unification of Nepal, literature in Nepali appears, but works in Newar gradually disappear. The poetry of Bhanubhakta cariya (1812–68) and the writings of Motiram Bhatta (1866–96) played an important role in the development of Nepalese literature. In the 20th century. the most significant literary phenomena were the poetry of L.P. Devkots (1909-59), Lekhnath Poudyala (1884-1965), Siddhicharana Shresthi (1912-92), Madhava Ghimmire (born 1919), drama by Bala Krishna Sama (Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana) (1902-81), prose B.P. Koirali (1914–82), the first prime minister to come to power after democratic elections. From the beginning. 20th century Newar literature is developing again.