In the Stone Age, mainly Tibeto-Burmese tribes lived in the mountain valleys of Nepal. The first state formations were headed by the semi-mythical dynasties of Gopal and Kirat. Terai in the 1st millennium BC were inhabited by Indo-Aryans, closely associated with Northern India. It was here, in Lumbini, in the Shakya tribe that the founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BC), was born. Up to the 18th century. on the territory of Nepal there was no single state, but there were many different formations. In the first millennium, the most famous was the Newar state headed by the Lichchavi dynasty in the Kathmandu valley (4th to 8th centuries). It was under the significant influence of Indian civilization, but also experienced a certain influence of Tibet. At the same time, the Newar state became one of the main centers of the spread of Buddhism to the north. In the beginning. 13th century here a state arose led by the Malla dynasty, which became the political, economic and cultural center of Nepal.

During this period, the migration of the Indo-Aryan population increases, primarily to Western Nepal. On the basis of mixing with autochthons, the formation of the Khas people (modern Nepalese) begins. Their numerous principalities often pursued an aggressive policy already from the 13th century. (invasions of Tibet and the Kathmandu Valley). All R. 18th century the ruler of the Gorkha principality (formed in the 16th century) Prithvi Narayan Shah created a military confederation and began conquests. In 1769 he became king of Nepal, following the capture of the Kathmandu Valley. Expansion, which lasted until the beginning. 19th century (even territories not included in modern Nepal were included in the new state), was stopped by external forces. In 1792, after the invasion of Tibet, Nepal was defeated by the Chinese army. In 1814, the Anglo-Nepalese war began, ending with the signing of the Segaul Treaty (1816), according to which Nepal was deprived of part of its possessions and agreed to British control over its foreign policy relations. Nepal was artificially isolated from the outside world.

In 1846, after the physical elimination of most of the members of the rest of the feudal elite, the autocratic Rana family came to power, which created a system of hereditary prime ministers (the first was Jang Bahadur Rana). The institution of the monarchy was retained, but the king’s power was purely nominal. After the Shamsher coup (1885), a process of certain degradation began. Rana began to essentially control the entire economy, and most of the embezzled funds were exported from the country. Migration from the country has intensified. Nepal has allowed Britain to begin recruiting Nepalese into the army. More than 200 thousand Nepalese subjects fought during the 1st and 2nd world wars.

The gaining of independence by India sharply intensified the anti-Iranist struggle. Formed in 1947 in India, the Nepalese Congress (NK) immediately organized a civil disobedience movement in Nepal. In 1950, the NK decided to start hostilities. The flight of King Tribhuvan to India precipitated events. The legal form for the elimination of woundacracy was the 1951 Provisional Constitution, which proclaimed the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and abolished the exclusive rights and privileges of members of the Rana family. In 1959, in accordance with the adopted new Constitution, the first parliamentary elections were held, in which NK won. In 1960, a royal coup took place. It announced the dissolution of the cabinet of ministers, the abolition of a number of articles of the Constitution, the prohibition of all parties and political organizations, and the establishment of a regime of personal power for the king. The 1962 constitution legalized the changes that had taken place in Nepal.

Mt. Manaslu in Himalaya, Nepal

The monarchy pursued a course towards the elimination of feudal and semi-feudal relations, the implementation of land reform (the Law on Agrarian Reform was adopted in 1963), industrialization, and an independent foreign policy. In the 2nd floor. In the 1980s, amid a deteriorating economic situation and the impact of the demonstration effect of other countries, an intensification of the struggle for democratization began. In 1990, a multi-party system was introduced, and a coalition government of NK and the United Left Front was formed (it included numerous communist groups). The interim constitution of 1990 consolidated the country’s transition to a constitutional monarchy.

In 1991, NK won the parliamentary elections and formed a government headed by G.P. Koirali. Internal political divisions led to his resignation in 1994. New elections brought victory to the Nepalese Communist Party (United Marxist-Leninist) NKP (UML), but it did not have a majority of seats in parliament. As a result, successive coalition governments were in power for 5 years. In 1999, at the elections, NK again received a majority of seats in parliament and formed its own government headed by K.P. Bhattarai. However, the aggravated intra-factional struggle led to a political leapfrog: in 2000 G.P. Koirala, in 2001 – Sh.B. Deuba, in 2002 – L.B. Chand (all – for the second time in 1990_-), in 2003 – S. B. Thapa (held this post 5 times in the 1960s and 1980s).

In 2001, King Birendra, along with several other family members, was killed in a family quarrel. His younger brother Gyanendra was proclaimed king.

From ser. 1990s the Maoist guerrilla movement in the countryside intensified sharply. In November 2001, a state of emergency was even declared in the country. Thousands of people have been killed in recent years. Several times the parties agreed to end hostilities (the last time was in 2003), but each time the truce did not last long.