In 1990-2000, the annual GDP growth rate was 2.4%, in 2000/01 – 4.6%, in 2001/02 – 0.8%. GDP is $ 5.5 billion (or $ 30.6 billion at purchasing power parity), and per capita income is $ 1,327 (PPP) (2000). The share of Nepal in the world economy is small (less than 0.1%).

The economically active population is 9.9 million people. (43% of the population) (2001). The share of the unemployed was 4.9%, 47% were not fully employed. In the 1990s. more than 1 million people went to work abroad. In Nepal itself, there is a shortage of skilled labor. In 1990-2000, the average annual growth in prices for consumer goods was 8.6%. The growth of the price index in 2000/01 – 2.1%, in 2001/02 – 3%.

In 2001, agriculture employed more than 6.5 million people, 65.7% of the economically active population (in 1991 – 81.2%), in trade, restaurant and hotel business – 9.9% (it was 3.5% ), in industry – 8.8% (it was 2%), in social services – 7.8% (it was 10.2%).

Agriculture remains the leading sector of the economy. It accounted for 39% of GDP (2000/01). Processed approx. 3.7 million hectares. The main food crops are rice (collected in 2000/01 – 4.2 million tons), corn (more than 1.5 million tons), wheat (1.3 million tons), barley, millet. The main commercial crops: sugar cane (2.2 million tons), oilseeds, tobacco, jute, tea bush. The harvest of fruits and vegetables amounted to almost 2.5 million tons. Livestock production is less developed (meat production – almost 200 thousand tons, milk – 1.2 million tons). The fish catch amounted to 35 thousand tons.

The service sector accounts for 37% of GDP (2000). Trade, catering and hospitality (11% of GDP) are developing quite rapidly, which is largely due to the service of foreign tourists. The number of tourists reaches almost 0.5 million. per year (2001).

The manufacturing industry is poorly developed. It accounted for (2000/01) 9.5% of GDP. Main industries: agricultural processing, clothing and carpet manufacturing, tobacco industry, cement and brick production. Almost 1.5 billion kWh of energy was generated (2000). Construction accounted for 9% of GDP.

The length of the roads is approx. 15.8 thousand km (almost 4.6 thousand km paved), railways – 51 km (2002). More than 60 thousand cars were registered (2002). 1.6 million people were transported by rail. (2000). 45 airports (9 with concrete landing strips). More than 640 thousand people were transported by airplanes. (2000).

After 1990, in economic policy, the main directions were privatization (leading to contradictory results), decentralization (granting additional financial rights to local government), measures aimed at attracting foreign capital (which did not give special results), infrastructure development and the implementation of various development programs. The bureaucratic restrictions on entrepreneurial and commercial activities are being lifted. The fight against poverty and underemployment has been declared a priority task in the social sphere.

The head of the Government of Nepal also noted that the state will provide loans of up to $25,000 at 2% per annum for the reconstruction of private homes for those who have lost their homes. This will create demand for property construction in Nepal

The Nepalese Central Bank was established in 1956 and is responsible for economic, financial, banking and price stability. Issues licenses to commercial banks and controls their activities, determines the exchange rate, takes the necessary measures to curb the rise in prices, performs the functions of a banker of the government, commercial banks and companies, cooperatives. Commercial bank funds slightly exceed 200 billion rupees (2002). Foreign exchange reserves in the banking sector amount to Rs 112 billion (2003).

Private consumption accounts for 75% of GDP (2000/01), government expenditures – 19.4% (income – 11.9%). All government expenditures amounted to approx. 80 billion rupees. Foreign aid (almost half – gratuitous) exceeded 30 billion rupees. In 2000, government spending on education and health care amounted to 3.3 and 1.3% of GDP (private – 4.2%). 2001 and 2002 saw a sharp drop in government development spending. Domestic savings accounted for 13.2% in 2001/02. External debt exceeds $ 2.5 billion (2001). Debt servicing went to 1.8% of GDP.

The incomes of the 10% high-income group of the population (29.8% of all incomes of the population) were 9.3 times higher than the incomes of the 10% low-income group (3.2%). Incomes of women (2000) are significantly lower (880 dollars versus 1752 for men). In 2000, 37.7% of the population had an income of less than $ 1 a day, and 82.5% – less than $ 2. According to the national methodology, the share of the poor is 42% (in urban areas – 23%). In recent years, the percentage of urban poor has decreased and the percentage of rural residents has increased. 54.1% of children under 5 years of age are constantly undernourished. Nepal ranks only 142nd in the Human Development Index in the UNDP classification, although it is constantly growing: 0.289 (1975), 0.328 (1980), 0.370 (1985), 0.416 (1990), 0.453 (1995), 0.490 (2000 ).

In 2001/02, the volume of foreign trade amounted to 153 billion rupees. Exports are significantly inferior to imports (more than 2 times). Mainly exported are ready-made clothes (in 2001/02 – 42.1% of exports), woolen carpets (33.2%), wool products (10.1%). The main imports are food products, petroleum products, fertilizers, metals, and electrical goods. The most important exporters to Nepal are India, Singapore, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia (55, 9.5, 6.5%, respectively). The main importers from Nepal are India, the USA and Germany (51, 19 and 7%, respectively).